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Agenda setting Initially conceptualized by McCombs, Shaw, and Weaver , agenda setting has been developed on the basis of the US presidential campaign: specifically, the ability of the news media to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda. Discussion In this literature review, we mapped the studies of influence of prime-time TV dramas containing health messages, which were used as a medium of EE in developed countries. Limitations One limitation of this study is the exclusion of studies on soap opera dramas, which are broadcast on TV networks during the early afternoon; we excluded these because soap opera ratings have fallen significantly in the US and other developed countries since the s.
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Perceived realism of television medical dramas and perceptions about physicians. Medical dramas and viewer perception of health: Testing cultivation effects. Human Communication Research , 40 , — Defining identification: A theoretical look at the identification of audiences with media characters. Mass Communication and Society , 4 , — The American Journal of Bioethics , 8 12 , 1—8. Bioethics and professionalism in popular television medical dramas.
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A quantitative observational analysis of the portrayal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in television medical drama. Resuscitation , 80 , — Technology as the representative anecdote in popular discourses of health and medicine. Health Communication , 13 , — Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self poisoning: time series and questionnaire study.
Sad not bad: Images of social care professionals in popular UK television drama.
Prime-time society : an anthropological analysis of television and culture in SearchWorks catalog
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The networks soon had more than three channels to compete with, however, as cable and satellite became more accessible and affordable and offered many more programming options. Cable and satellite television offered customers many more channel choices, for a fee, and forced broadcast networks to rethink their programming and business model. Network and broadcast television was forever changed by the growth of cable and satellite technology. Although the mass medium is still the same moving images sent from one place to many television sets , the increased competition led to further development and changes to how we, as users, interact with and experience the medium.
Until the early s, the major networks had lobbied the FCC to control and regulate cable television to reduce the potential for competition.
Time, Inc. Cable television then grew steadily and quickly for the next several years, and many more channels were quickly introduced. Many people were also happy to give up ugly rooftop antennae that required readjustment for each channel change or to compensate for other signal interference. The price for the access and convenience, however, was a monthly cable charge, which was a big change from the public and free broadcast channels. Additionally, cable companies and satellite television providers compete fiercely with each other, which helps reduce cost.
In , 90 percent of US households with televisions subscribed to cable, satellite, or fiber-optic television. For the past few years, cable companies have grown increasingly nervous about a new trend in television-viewing habits. The practice of cord cutting refers to people who cancel their cable television packages and rely on broadband Internet service and traditional broadcast television signals to watch the programming they used to receive through monthly cable subscriptions.
Although the number of television households in the cord-cutter category increased by approximately one million in , they still only account for about 5 percent of total television households. Age as a demographic category is key to understanding this phenomenon. Market analysts note that this segment of the market is elderly and will not be around for much longer.
Many baby boomers who saw the advent of cable and satellite and have long enjoyed the diverse programming their subscriptions offer view their monthly bills as a standard utility and will likely continue subscribing until they die. Generation Xers, who are currently in their thirties and forties, are caught in the middle. Many of these people are technologically savvy and know how to access and occasionally do access online television and movies. Many of them may also find their monthly cable or satellite bills annoying but acceptable. Last, we have a generation of people who are in college or are recent graduates who happen to be coming of age during a harsh economic crisis.
They have also spent much of their lives watching online videos, television shows, and movies. Even though 98 percent of television viewing still occurs through traditional means cable, satellite, broadcast, or telephone company , 9 percent of US Americans have cut the cord to rely only on online viewing content, and an additional 11 percent are considering doing the same, which points to the fact that this practice is only going to increase over the coming years.
Whereas media used to be defined by their delivery systems, digital media Media similarly constructed with digital, binary code made up of ones and zeros.
Instead of paper being the medium for books, radio waves being the medium for sound broadcasting, and cables being the medium for cable television, a person can now read a book, listen to the radio, and access many cable television shows on the Internet. In short, digital media read, write, and store data text, images, sound, and video using numerical code, which revolutionized media more quickly than ever before.
Just as technological advances made radio and television possible, the Internet would not have been possible without some key breakthroughs. The Internet A decentralized communications and information network that relies on the transmission of digital signals through cables, phone lines, and satellites, which are then relayed through network servers, modems, and computer processors.
The development of digital code was the first innovation that made way for the Internet and all digital media. Surprisingly, this innovation occurred in the s, leading to the development of the first computers. Second, in , microprocessors capable of reading and storing electronic signals helped make the room-sized computers of the past much smaller and more affordable for individuals. Last, the development of fiber-optic cables in the mids allowed for the transmission of large amounts of information, including video and sound, using lasers to create pulses of light.